Hedging is a type of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a suitable level of caution can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It can also help to point the known degree of certainty we now have pertaining to the evidence or support.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). You will notice that even though two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has an important level of extra language across the claim. A amount that is large of language is performing the purpose of ‘hedging’.

Compare the following two short texts, (A) and (B). What number of differences can you see in the text that is second? What’s the function/effect/purpose of each difference?

You will probably realize that (B) is more ‘academic’, but it is important to know why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to boost their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) generally seems to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in a noticable difference in their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study learners that are involved 15-16 when you look at the UK, although it could be applicable to many other groups. However, the study involved an sample that is opt-in which means that the sample students may have been more ‘keen’, or more involved with reading already. It might be beneficial to see whether or not the findings differ in a wider sample.

(Please note that Yen (2005) is a reference that is fictional only as an example).

The table below provides some examples of language to use when knowledge that is making.

Try to look for examples of hedging language in your own reading, to add for this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some extent

2) Appearance

appears to
has the looks of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is in a position to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Into the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

could be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is frequently used to mean
the term is often used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories devised and compiled by Jane Blackwell

IOE Centre that is writing Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre in the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, but they are the simplest way to write an extended answer.
In this lesson, we shall have a look at how exactly to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you should about be writing

Write on the basic ideas which will answer your https://essaypro.ws question


Re-write exacltly what the ideas are and say why you’ve got answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start going right through how an essay works, we must go through three terms that we will use to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = most of the main points you are likely to talk about in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important parts of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the whole essay that you write in your introduction.
We shall go through a few examples in a moment.

Basic Introduction

To create your introduction, follow these steps. Each of these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, are the name of text(s) and s that are author(
  • Write a one sentence answer (definition)
  • List most of the main points of one’s argument

Exemplory case of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are unable to fly. (Re-write of question)
They cannot fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
They are too heavy to float, they don’t have wings or propellers, and so they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

The body forms most of your essay.
It will be the most part that is important of essay you write.
In your body, you need to argue all of your main points and explain why they reply to your question.
Each main point must be in a new paragraph.

Each main point must certanly be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph should be set out like this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and provide factors why.
  • Evidence: Proof you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It must prove that your answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the point that is main it is possible to go directly to the next.

Illustration of a Body Paragraph

Pigs are too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they are not in a position to float, which can be a good way a creature can fly. To float a pig would need to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and due to this weight, it is really not lighter than air. (Evidence)
For this reason, a pig is unable to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you’ve got written in your body paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to go into the air, and fly that is therefore cannot.